Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery and Multiple Peripheral Mycotic Aneurysms Due to Mycobacterium Bovis Following Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Therapy: A Case Report

Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery and Multiple Peripheral Mycotic Aneurysms Due to Mycobacterium Bovis Following Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Therapy: A Case Report

Petar Duvnjak, Mario Laguna

Abstract


The use of live attenuated intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is a generally accepted safe and effective method for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder.  Although rare, < 5% of patient's treated with intravesicular BCG therapy may develop potentially serious complications, including localized infections to the genitourinary tract, mycotic aneurysms and osteomyelitis.  We present here a case of a 63-year-old male who developed left coronary and multiple peripheral M. Bovis mycotic aneurysms as a late complication of intravesicular BCG therapy for superficial bladder cancer.  The patient initially presented with acute onset pain and swelling in the left knee > 2 years following initial therapy, and initial workup revealed a ruptured saccular aneurysm of the left popliteal artery as well as incidental bilateral common femoral artery aneurysms.  Following endovascular treatment and additional workup, the patient was discovered to have additional aneurysms in the right popliteal artery and left anterior descending artery (LAD). Surgical pathology and bacterial cultures obtained from the excised femoral aneurysms and surgical groin wounds were positive for Mycobacterium Bovis, and the patient was initiated on a nine-month antimycobacterial course of isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol.  Including the present case, there has been a total of 32 reported cases of mycotic aneurysms as a complication from intravesicular BCG therapy, which we will review here.  The majority of reported cases involve the abdominal aorta; however, this represents the first known reported case of a coronary aneurysm.

Keywords


Mycotic aneurysm; BCG; Bacillus Calmette-Guerin; Mycobacterium bovis; intravesicular



DOI: https://doi.org/10.3941/jrcr.v10i8.2697