Question:

Which of the following are advantages of conventional angiography in the setting of arteriovenous malformation (more than one can be correct)?
1. Definitive or pre-operative endovascular embolization can be performed
2. It is non-invasive
3. It depicts real-time flow
4. It allows three-dimensional imaging
5. It is inexpensive





Answer:

The correct answers for the question "Which of the following are advantages of conventional angiography in the setting of arteriovenous malformation (more than one can be correct)?" are:

1. Definitive or pre-operative endovascular embolization can be performed

3. It depicts real-time flow



Explanation
1. Definitive or pre-operative endovascular embolization of AVMs can be performed with conventional angiography. [Embolization can be performed to decrease arterial inflow to the AVM/AVF preoperatively. Coil embolization of feeding arteries can also be the definitive treatment [9, 18].]

2. Conventional angiography is an invasive procedure with associated risks. [Despite these advantages, it is an invasive procedure with associated risks, such as bleeding, arterial dissection, and bowel ischemia.]

3. Conventional angiography depicts real-time flow of AVMs. [Conventional angiography is considered the gold standard in vascular imaging due to its high spatial resolution, real-time flow depiction, and the ability to perform concurrent interventions [1].]

4. Conventional angiography, like CTA and MRA, allows three-dimensional imaging. [Conventional angiography is considered the gold standard in vascular imaging due to its high spatial resolution, real-time flow depiction, and the ability to perform concurrent interventions [1].]

5. CTA is less expensive than conventional angiography. [CTA is also less expensive and more readily available in the emergency setting [9, 31].]



From the manuscript:
Ischemic Colitis Due to a Mesenteric Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with a Connective Tissue Disorder
Radiology Case. 2014 Dec; 8(12):9-21


This article belongs to the GI section.




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From the manuscript

Ischemic Colitis Due to a Mesenteric Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with a Connective Tissue Disorder

Free full text article: Ischemic Colitis Due to a  Mesenteric Arteriovenous Malformation in a Patient with a Connective Tissue Disorder

Abstract
Ischemic colitis is a rare, life-threatening, consequence of mesenteric arteriovenous malformations. Ischemia ensues from a steal phenomenon through shunting, and may be compounded by the resulting portal hypertension. Computed tomographic angiography is the most common first-line test because it is quick, non-invasive, and allows for accurate anatomic characterization. Also, high-resolution three-dimensional images can be created for treatment planning. Magnetic resonance angiography is similarly sensitive for vascular mapping. Conventional angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis and also allows for therapeutic endovascular embolization. Our patient underwent testing using all three of these modalities. We present the first reported case of this entity in a patient with a vascular connective tissue disorder.






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