Question:

Which of the following is incorrect about Indirect carotico-cavernous fistula:
1. Communications between dural branches of internal carotid artery and/or external carotid artery with cavernous sinus.
2. They are low flow.
3. Have subtle clinical manifestations.
4. Can be treated with balloons.
5. Carotid compression can help in their resolution.





Answer:

The correct answer for the question "Which of the following is incorrect about Indirect carotico-cavernous fistula:" is:

4. Can be treated with balloons.



Explanation
1. Communications between dural branches of internal carotid artery and/or external carotid artery with cavernous sinus [Indirect carotico-cavernous fistula   are Barrow`s type B,C,D  and is supplied by branches of external carotid artery  and/or internal carotid artery].

2. Are low flow [They are usually spontaneous and low flow fistulas].

3. Have subtle clinical manifestations [Insiduous onset of redness of eye may be the only subtle clinical feature].

4. Can be treated with balloons [Treatment includes embolisation of external carotid artery  feeders and may be aided later by manual carotid compression].

5. Carotid compression can help in their resolution [Treatment includes embolisation of external carotid artery  feeders and may be aided later by manual carotid compression].



From the manuscript:
Diffusion restriction in thrombosed superior ophthalmic veins: Two cases of diverse etiology and literature review
Radiology Case. 2011 Mar; 5(3):8-16


This article belongs to the Neuro section.




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From the manuscript

Diffusion restriction in thrombosed superior ophthalmic veins: Two cases of diverse etiology and literature review

Free full text article: Diffusion restriction in thrombosed superior ophthalmic veins: Two cases of diverse etiology and literature review

Abstract
Thrombosis of superior ophthalmic veins (SOV) is a well known entity occurring secondary to varied etiologies. We describe diffusion restriction in thrombosed SOV in two cases of different etiologies- bilateral involvement in a patient with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) and another where embolisation of an indirect carotico-cavernous fistula (CCF) resulted in complete SOV thrombosis accompanied by clinical worsening. Our cases add to the limited literature on diffusion findings in SOV thrombosis.






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