Question:

Which of the following is false regarding Balamuthia mandrillaris?
1. B. mandrillaris is a free-living species of amoeba.
2. B. mandrillaris is the sole member of its genus.
3. B. mandrillaris has been isolated in soil.
4. B. mandrillaris is incapable of penetrating the blood brain barrier.
5. B. mandrillaris is capable of producing a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis.





Answer:

The correct answer for the question "Which of the following is false regarding Balamuthia mandrillaris?" is:

4. B. mandrillaris is incapable of penetrating the blood brain barrier.



Explanation
1. It is a free-living amoeba.[Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living species of amoebae which was first isolated in 1986, from fragments brain tissue of a mandrill baboon that died of a neurological disease at the San Diego Zoo.]

2. It is the sole member of its genus. [Representing the sole member of its genus, B. mandrillaris has been historically difficult to isolate, but has been recently isolated from soil and cultured using specialized media.]

3. It has been isolated from soil. [Representing the sole member of it genus, B. mandrillaris has been historically difficult to isolate, but has been recently isolated from soil and cultured using specialized media.]

4. It is capable of crossing the blood brain barrier. [The organism does possess various virulence factors that aid in binding to and penetrating the blood brain barrier.]

5. It is capable of producing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. [This pathogen is capable of producing a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) which is a very rare cause of fulminant life threatening meningoencephalitis of which approximately 200 cases have been reported since 1991.]



From the manuscript:
Balamuthia Mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis associated with Solid Organ Transplantation - Review of Cases
Radiology Case. 2013 Sep; 7(9):9-18


This article belongs to the Neuro section.




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From the manuscript

Balamuthia Mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis associated with Solid Organ Transplantation - Review of Cases

Free full text article: Balamuthia Mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis associated with Solid Organ Transplantation -  Review of Cases

Abstract
We report the first identified transmission of Balamuthia mandrillaris through solid organ transplantation. Kidneys were transplanted from a donor with presumptive diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Shortly after, the recipients developed neurologic symptoms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain from the donor and both kidney recipients demonstrated multiple ring enhancing lesions with surrounding edema and adjacent leptomeningeal extension. In addition most of the lesions demonstrated signal changes suggesting central hemorrhagic foci. Specimens were tested locally and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Histopathology revealed B. mandrillaris in either brain tissue and/or cerebral spinal fluid in the donor and recipients.






References



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