Question:

Myelolipomas are:
1. Benign tumors comprised of adrenal gland tissue and hematopoietic elements.
2. Benign functional tumors comprised of fat and hematopoietic elements.
3. Benign nonfunctional tumors located most frequently in the adrenal glands.
4. Nonfunctional adrenal tumors, discovered incidentally on crossectional imaging.
5. Benign nonfunctional tumors that rarely degenerate into malignant neoplasms.





Answer:

The correct answers for the question "Myelolipomas are: " are:

3. Benign nonfunctional tumors located most frequently in the adrenal glands.

4. Nonfunctional adrenal tumors, discovered incidentally on crossectional imaging.



Explanation

Myelolipomas are benign nonfunctional tumors comprised of fat and hematopoietic elements; therefore answers a. and b. are wrong. They are most commonly found incidentally in the adrenal glands; answers c. and d are correct. Malignant degeneration has not been reported to date; answer e. is wrong. The answer to this question was mentioned in the first paragraph of the discussion (Myelolipomas, first described in 1905 by Gierke, are benign lesions comprised of fat and hematopoietic elements (2). They typically are nonfunctional incidental tumors discovered on crossectional imaging within the adrenal glands. Malignant degeneration has not been reported to date (1)).



From the manuscript:
Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum
Radiology Case. 2009 Nov; 3(11):20-23


This article belongs to the GI section.




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From the manuscript

Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum

Free full text article: Multifocal extra-adrenal myelolipoma arising in the greater omentum

Abstract
Myelolipomas are rare benign tumors composed of mature fat and hematopoietic elements. They are most often discovered incidentally within the adrenal glands, with extra-adrenal myelolipomas being extremely rare tumors. We report a case of multifocal omental extra-adrenal myelolipoma in a patient who had undergone bilateral adrenalectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intraperitoneal extra-adrenal myelolipoma.






References



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2. Zieker D, Königstrainer I, Miller S, Vogel U, Sotlar K, Steurer W, Königstrainer A, Lehmann TG. Simultaneous adrenal and extra-adrenal myelolipoma - an uncommon incident: case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol 2008; 6:72.
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3. Marks JB, Casillas J, Levis S. Case report: adrenal myelolipoma-rationale for a noninvasive diagnosis. Am J Med Sci 1992; 303:255-7.
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4. Lamont JP, Lieberman ZH, Stephens JS. Giant adrenal myelolipoma. Am Surg 2002; 68:392-4.
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6. Bishop E. Adrenal myelolipomas show nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in hematopoietic elements and fat: support for a clonal origin of myelolipomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2006; 30:838-43.
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