Question:

Which of the following answer choices is false?
1. PMMA embolization is more commonly seen in elderly patients.
2. PMMA embolization is found equally among men and women.
3. PMMA embolization usually has a poor prognosis.
4. Asymptomatic patients usually do not require treatment for a PMMA embolism.
5. Treatment of symptomatic PMMA embolism involves initially placing the patient on heparin, followed by 6 months of coumadin therapy.





Answer:

The correct answer for the question "Which of the following answer choices is false?" is:

3. PMMA embolization usually has a poor prognosis.



Explanation
1. PMMA is most commonly found in the elderly, because elderly are more likely than younger patients to have vertebroplasty performed.  [More common in elderly patients, as vertebroplasty is more commonly performed on these patients (summary table)].

2. PMMA embolization is found equally among men and women.  [Men and women are equally affected (summary table)].

3. PMMA embolization has a good prognosis, as it has a mortality rate of 1%.  [Mortality rate is 1% (summary table)].

4. Asymptomatic patients usually do not require treatment of a PMMA embolism.  [Most patients remain asymptomatic and do not require treatment (summary table)].

5. Symptomatic PMMA embolism is treated with Heparin, followed by 6 months of coumadin therapy.  [For symptomatic or central PMMA embolism, case reports recommend the guidelines for treatment of thrombotic pulmonary embolisms, which includes initial heparinization, followed by 6-months of coumadin therapy (summary table)].



From the manuscript:
Investigation of polymethylmethacrylate pulmonary embolus in a patient ten years following vertebroplasty
Radiology Case. 2011 Oct; 5(10):14-21


This article belongs to the Interventional section.




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From the manuscript

Investigation of polymethylmethacrylate pulmonary embolus in a patient ten years following vertebroplasty

Free full text article: Investigation of polymethylmethacrylate pulmonary embolus in a patient ten years following vertebroplasty

Abstract
Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a procedure commonly used for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures, and the number of procedures has been steadily increasing over the past decade. We report a case of an 81 year old female with a history of breast cancer that developed two vertebral body compression fractures and was subsequently treated with PV. The patient developed a subsegmental pulmonary polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) embolus as a complication of the procedure. Ten years following the procedure, she remained asymptomatic with the PMMA embolus being discovered incidentally during workup for a suspected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. In reviewing the case, we describe the typical presentation of a pulmonary PMMA embolus and consider methods to decrease the incidence of this complication.






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