Question:

Which of the following statements are true?
1. Reperfusion is more common in embolic stroke than strokes from other etiologies.
2. Embolic stroke symptoms typically fluctuate.
3. Embolic stroke symptoms most often occur suddenly, with maximum symptoms at onset.
4. Pacemaker placement has not been shown to reduce mortality in patients with sick sinus syndrome.
5. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is associated with a lower ischemic stroke risk than permanent atrial fibrillation.





Answer:

The correct answers for the question "Which of the following statements are true?" are:

1. Reperfusion is more common in embolic stroke than strokes from other etiologies.

3. Embolic stroke symptoms most often occur suddenly, with maximum symptoms at onset.

4. Pacemaker placement has not been shown to reduce mortality in patients with sick sinus syndrome.



Explanation
1.    The authors found reperfusion was significantly more common in embolic strokes than strokes from other etiologies-with 13 of 23 embolic events reperfused but only 3 of 23 other events.

2.    Embolic strokes most often occur suddenly. However, thrombotic strokes will often have waxing and waning symptoms.

3.    Embolic strokes most often occur suddenly, with maximum symptoms at onset

4.    Pacemaker placement may reduce morbidity, but have not been shown to reduce mortality, in patients with sick sinus syndrome.

5.    Persistent, paroxysmal, and permanent atrial fibrillation all appear to increase the risk of ischemic stroke to a similar degree.



From the manuscript:
Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke
Radiology Case. 2014 Jun; 8(6):1-10


This article belongs to the Neuro section.




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From the manuscript

Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke

Free full text article: Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke

Abstract
Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct.






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