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Other Radiology articles from the Pediatric Radiology section Pediatric Radiology

MRI diagnosis of infantile Alexander disease in a 14 month old African boy by Nondumiso Dlamini et al.

Published: 2016 Oct
Issue: 10(10) :: Pages: 7-14


Free full text article: MRI diagnosis of infantile Alexander disease  in a 14 month old African boy

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Abstract: Alexander disease, also known as fibrinoid leukodystrophy, is a rare leukoencephalopathy which occurs due to a mutation in the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) gene. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be highly sensitive in making the diagnosis. Typical MRI findings, in combination with positive genetic blood analysis, confirm the diagnosis.


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Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Table





Other Radiology articles from the Musculoskeletal Imaging section Musculoskeletal Imaging

Persistent proatlas with additional segmentation of the craniovertebral junction - The Tsuang-Goehmann-Malformation by Holger Spittank et al.

Published: 2016 Oct
Issue: 10(10) :: Pages: 15-23


Free full text article: Persistent proatlas with additional segmentation of the craniovertebral junction - The Tsuang-Goehmann-Malformation

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Abstract: Case study description and analysis of a complex craniovertebral dysplasia in an 8-year-old male patient, in which conventional cervical spine radiographs demonstrated a regularly differentiated occipital base, as well as the presence of two lateral masses of the proatlas vertebra and two lateral masses of the atlas vertebra. Further assessment included computed tomography of the occipital base and the upper cervical spine as well as three-dimensional reconstruction. Malsegmentation of the fourth occipital vertebra can result in various anomalies that are known as `manifestation of the proatlas`. The occurrence of a persistent proatlas with additional segmentation of the craniovertebral junction represents an extremely rare dysplasia. To our knowledge, it is the second report concerning the persistence of a complete human proatlas vertebra. We consider the biomechanical and embryological particularities of this complex dysplasia to represent sufficient basis for future differentiation from other malformations of the fourth occipital vertebra. Comprehensive literature review and discussion about the entity will be provided.


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Conventional Radiography, Computed Tomography, Table





Other Radiology articles from the Interventional Radiology section Interventional Radiology

Percutaneous Cholecystostomy and Hydrodissection in Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Subcapsular Leiomyosarcoma Metastasis Adjacent to the Gallbladder: Protective Effect. by André Azevedo et al.

Published: 2016 Oct
Issue: 10(10) :: Pages: 24-32


Free full text article: Percutaneous Cholecystostomy and Hydrodissection in Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Subcapsular Leiomyosarcoma Metastasis Adjacent to the Gallbladder: Protective Effect.

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Abstract: Uterine leiomyosarcoma is an uncommon pathology, predominantly found in aged population. Patients with metastatic disease have poor survival and therapy mainly consists of palliative systemic chemotherapy. However, more aggressive strategies such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may benefit patients with limited secondary disease. RFA is considered a simple and safe modality for treatment of hepatic lesions. The benefits related to RFA include low morbidity, short hospital stay and the possibility to repeat the procedure when necessary due to recurrences. However, minor and major complications related to mechanical and thermal damage may occur, especially in cases of tumors adjacent to extrahepatic organs and those at subcapsular position. This case report shows a successful RFA of two hepatic subcapsular leiomyosarcoma metastases neighbouring the gallbladder, without a safe cleavage plane from it. Combined hydrodissection, percutaneous cholecystostomy and continuous irrigation were performed as effective techniques to prevent thermal injury. Clinical and radiological follow up demonstrates no local complication.


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Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, Ultrasound, Table





Other Radiology articles from the Neuroradiology section Neuroradiology

Cerebral Misery Perfusion on Susceptibility Weighted Imaging in Acute Carotid Dissection by Arian Mashhood et al.

Published: 2016 Oct
Issue: 10(10) :: Pages: 1-6


Free full text article: Cerebral Misery Perfusion on Susceptibility Weighted Imaging in Acute Carotid Dissection

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Abstract: The cerebral vasculature incorporates several fail-safes that must be breached before an irreversible ischemic event takes place. In particular, when autoregulatory vasodilatation fails secondary to falling cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP; stage I hemodynamic failure), increases in the oxygen extraction fraction work to maintain the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. Previously, failure of this mechanism, stage II hemodynamic failure, or misery perfusion, has been imaged via positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Current susceptibility-weighted sequences (SWI) allow for more efficient imaging of this physiology. In this case, we identify an incident of reversible ischemia caused by spontaneous carotid artery dissection using a combination of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and SWI. The level of hemodynamic failure identified by the imaging sequences elevated the urgency of neurointervention, expediting the patient`s arrival to the neurointerventional table and thus avoiding impending irreversible ischemia.


Available image modalities: (click on modality to browse for other articles)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computed Tomography, Table





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